The Sherpa were nomadic people who first settled in the Solukhumbu District (Khumbu), Nepal then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes.
According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four main Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today.
About 1840 Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. Mahayana Buddhism religious conflict may have contributed to the migration in the 15th and 16th centuries. Sherpa migrants traveled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalaya.
Everest Region – Khumbu Valley
Khumbu (also known as the Everest Region) is a region of northeastern Nepal on the Nepalese side of Mount Everest. It is part of the Solukhumbu District, which in turn is part of the Sagarmatha Zone. Khumbu is one of three subregions of the main Khambu (specially Thulung) and Sherpa settlement of the Himalaya, the other two being Solu and Pharak. It includes the town of Namche Bazaar as well as the villages of Thame, Khumjung, Pangboche, Pheriche and Kunde. The famous Buddhist monastery at Tengboche is also located in the Khumbu.
The Khumbila mountain rising above Khumjung and Kunde, two of the larger villages in the area, with Mount Everest, Lhotse and Ama Dablam in the background.
The Khumbu’s elevation ranges from 3,300 metres (11,000 feet) to the 8,848 m (29,029 ft) summit of Mount Everest, the highest place on Earth. The Khumbu region includes both Sagarmatha National Park (above Monju) and the Sagarmatha National Park Buffer Zone, between Lukla and Monju.
The Khumbu is a glacier believed to be the result of the last great Ice Age, ~500,000 years ago.
Lonely Planet has ranked Khumbu region in sixth best region in the world to travel.
The Annapurna Circuit is a popular name for a trek within the Annapurna mountain range of central Nepal. The total length of the route varies between 160–230 km (100-145 mi), depending on where the motor transportation is used and where the trek is ended. The trek rises to an altitude of 5,400m on the Thorung La pass, touching the edge of the Tibetan plateau. This trek crosses two different river valleys and encircles the Annapurna massif, crossing Thorung La (5416m), the highest pass on this trek. Practically all trekkers hike the route counter clockwise, as then the daily altitude gain is slower and crossing the high Thorong La pass is easier and safer.
The mountain scenery, seen at close quarters includes the Annapurna Massif (Annapurna I-IV), Dhaulagiri, Machhapuchhre, Manaslu, Gangapurna [7455m] and Tilicho Peak (7134m). Numerous peaks of 6000-8000m in elevation rise from the Annapurna range.